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Active consumption is when the audience engages and discusses media messages that are fed to them and question the media messages through own life experiences. Different people interpret the message in other ways rather than question it, by doing this the audience would not be as suggestible to tell them what to think. Shows like ‘Free Speech’ on BBC3, like to discuss the youth of today and talk about the issues in society concerning money, behavior and other social attributes as a form of expressing opinion. They get guests like politicians and journalists on the show to discuss these issues, the audience who ask the questions are more active due to the deep discussions they have with the panel than people sitting at home. However people at home can interact with Twitter/Facebook as well as calling in to interact with the panelists and create debates, so Home viewers become less suggestible and more active as they can get involved in debates.
Passive consumption is when the audience doesn’t engage or question the media message but just accepts it, this what media outlets want to achieve when making a film or show as they want to view to except and not question. To get the audience into this state the story has to be believable, it doesn’t need to realistic as that would make it boring and unrealistic would look not worth the watch.
The Reception Study, provides a means of understanding media texts by understanding how these texts are read by audiences. Theorists who research media through reception studies are concerned with the experience of cinema and television viewing for spectators, and how meaning is created through that experience. An important concept of reception theory is that the media text, the individual movie or television program has no inherent meaning in and of itself. Instead, meaning is created in the interaction between spectator and text; in other words, meaning is created as the viewer watches and processes the film. Reception theory argues that contextual factors, more than textual ones, influence the way the spectator views the film or television program. Other factors include elements of the viewer’s identity as well as circumstances of exhibition, the spectator’s preconceived ideas concerning the film or television program’s genre and production, and even broad social, historical, and political issues. In short, reception theory places the viewer in context, taking into account all of the various factors that might influence how she or he will read and create meaning from the text.
Dominant: [Hegemonic] – Where the leader recognises what a programmes preferred of offered meaning is and agrees with it.
Oppostional: [Counter Hegemonic] – Where the dominant meaning is recognised but rejected for cultural, political or ideological reasons.
Negotiated: Where the reader accepts, rejects or refines elements of the program in the light of previously held views.
This is about extending the concept of an active audience further. In the 1980’s and 1990’s, the majority of the work was done on the way individuals received and interpreted a text, and how their individual circumstances including gender, class, age etc. Affected their readings. This particular work was based on Stuart Hail’s encoding & decoding model of the relationship between text and audience, this was a published paper in 1973. This has a major influence on cultural studies, and many of the terms it included remain influential in the media. The essay takes up and challenges long held assumptions on how media messages are produced, circulated and consumed; proposing a new theory of communication.
Halls essay impeached all three components of the mass communications model, it argued that meaning is not easily fixed or determined by the sender, the message is never transparent and the audience is not a passive recipient of meaning.
The Hypodermic Needle Theory is one of the earliest ways of thinking about how the media influences people, it was developed in the 1920’s and 1930’s after researches observed the effect of propaganda during World War 1 and events including the Orson Welles ‘War of the worlds’ broadcast.
The Hypodermic needle theory is a linear communication theory is a linear communication theory which suggests that media messages are injected directly into the brains of a passive audience. It suggests that we are all put in the same category.
This form of thinking about communication and media influences is no longer really accepted. In the 1930’s many researchers realized the limitations of this idea, and some disagreement with the early media theorists gave the idea any serious attention at all.
The theory continues to take effect on the way we talk about the media, people believe that the mass media has a powerful effect. Many people have discussed about the issue of children watching and playing media outlets that may or may not effect them in the long run, this is frequent in the modern day as media has become much more accessible to people and can be distributed in many forms. Parents worry about the influence of television in violent video games. News outlets run headlines like “Grand theft auto led teen to kill”. This brainwashes the consumer to think that this is completely true, as it’s coming from a particular form of media which is usually seen to be promoting true facts, and hard information.
The Payne Fund Studies which were conducted between 1929 and 1932, and looked at the effect of what movies have on children, contributed to the idea that the mass media has a powerful and direct impact on the audiences.
The Uses and Gratifications theory deals with the effect of people on the media. The theory describes mass communication, as it provides an approach that is audience centred. It deals with how and why people adopt specific media to satisfy their needs. it can be seen in such cases like personal music selection, we select music not to fit a particular mood but also in attempts to show empowerment or different motives.
During the 1950’s the Uses and Gratifications theory seemed like a breath of fresh air which resisted the pessimism of the effects models. Researchers questioned people as to the specific reasons they watch television. They then came to the conclusion that personality types are set apon an audience to set them into groups, meaning a different selection of people watch television for certain needs. This theory takes out the possibility that the media can have an unconscious influence over our lives and how we view the world.
The central point of the uses and gratifications is the belief that people use the media to get individual pleasures. Therefore people are not seen as helpless victims of all powerful media and get brainwashed, rather they use the media to fulfil their distinct needs.Jay G. Blumler and Elihu Katz devised their own uses and gratifications model in 1974 to highlight four areas of gratification in media texts for audiences.:-
A media text which provides escapism, When a particular piece of media partially covers a viewers senses and completely emerges them within the product/piece. For example the purposes of someone playing a video game, such as ‘Grand Theft Auto’, they would do this to escape reality and forget what is around them by surrounding themselves with a different universe.
– Personal relationships
People create personal relationships with the characters in a media text, they start to develop feelings for them as if they know them. This can become alarming if people start to trust them also, for example if someone formed a relationship with someone in a television series and that particular character died, they would feel as if they’ve lost someone in their life and ‘mourn’. Another example would be if someone trusted a news reporter too much; that they may take everything that they say at high value and not question it in any way, this trust could then be taken and abused by believing everything they say to be true.
When a person creates part of their own identity from things they find attractive in people from the media, for example somebody who is interested in the programme “TOWIE”. Usually on the show people are seen to be getting tans, dying their hair and keeping a high standard of a fashionable look, someone would copy this and incorporate this into their lives, like going to tan and getting their hair dyed shocking blonde, as in TOWIE this is seen as being acceptable and you are only “pretty” if you de-value your own natural looks to commit to the usual sexually attractiveness the cast is aiming to give off.
The audience gain an understanding of the world around them by consuming a media text, for example print and broadcasting news. For example the television series ‘Big Brother people are put in a house and surveillance, viewers would rather watch them do nothing, live & argue with each other, this makes people feel a sense of control and power. Another example would be ‘I’m a celebrity get me out of here’.
I believe that the group represented our subject constructively and sensibly. Without being offensive or demeaning in any way.
The colours used in the production of the Magazine are Red, Blue & Black.
Red is an emotionally intense colour, it has a high visibility and it’s vibrancy impacts well. Another reason why red was used is because it is signifying leadership, courage, love and friendship. All things which are all expected from a father.
Blue connotes depth and stability, it symbolises trust, loyalty, wisdom and confidence. It is usually used to promote products to link in with purity.
Black is quite a masculine colour and is usually associated with power and strength. It’s a prestigious colour.
The font that was used is called ‘Nexa’ and was downloaded from HERE
The reason for this is because this font is very slick and modern, it has unlimited design values to it which means it can be used frequently throughout the magazine and still look aesthetically pleasing without it coming out tacky or predictable.
It’s also easy to read not not complicated in any way.